Pamg cang sukses

Incoterm Dan Istilah yg Sering di pakai

Prinsip Kontrak Bisnis Internasional

International Commercial Terms

(incoterm)

Incoterms atau International Commercial Terms adalah kumpulan istilah yang dibuat untuk menyamakan pengertian antara penjual dan pembeli dalam perdagangan internasional. Incoterms menjelaskan hak dan kewajiban pembeli dan penjual yang berhubungan dengan pengiriman barang. Hal-hal yang dijelaskan meliputi proses pengiriman barang, penanggung jawab prosesekspor-impor, penanggung biaya yang timbul dan penanggung risiko bila terjadi perubahan kondisi barang yang terjadi akibat proses pengiriman.

Incoterms dikeluarkan oleh Kamar Dagang Internasional atau International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), versi terakhir yang dikeluarkan pada tanggal 1 Januari 2011 disebut sebagai Incoterms 2010. Incoterms 2010 dikeluarkan dalam bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa resmi dan 31 bahasa lain sebagai terjemahan resmi. Dalam Incoterms 2010 hanya ada 11 istilah yang disederhanakan dari 13 istilah Incoterms 2000, yaitu dengan menambahkan 2 istilah baru dan menggantikan 4 istilah lama. Istilah baru dalam Incoterms 2010 yaitu Delivered at Terminal (DAT); dan Delivered at Place (DAP). Sedangkan 4 istilah lama yang digantikan yaitu: Delivered at Frontier (DAF); Delivered Ex Ship (DES); Delivered Ex Quay (DEQ); Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU).

Pada Incoterms 2010, istilah dibagi dalam 2 kategori berdasar metode pengiriman, yaitu 7 istilah yang berlaku secara umum, dan 4 istilah yang berlaku khusus untuk pengiriman melalui transportasi air.

Terdapat 13 persyaratan perdagangan internasional di dalam Incoterm yang berbentuk singkatan:

  1. EXW  :  Ex Work (named place)
  2. FCA  :  Free Carrier (named place)
  3. FAS  :  Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment)
  4. FOB  :  Free on Board (named port of shipment)
  5. CFR  :  Cost on Freight (named port of destination)
  6. CIF  :  Cost, Insurance, and freight (named port of destination)
  7. CPT  :  Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)
  8. CIP  :  Carriage an Insurance Paid To (named place of destination)
  9. DAF  :  Delivered at frontier (named place)
  10. DES  :  Delivered Es Ship (named port of destination)
  11. DEQ  :  Delivered Ex Quay (named port of destination)
  12. DDU  :  Delivered Duty unpaid (named place of destination)
  13. DDP  :  Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)

1. EXW:  Ex Work (named place)

Adalah syarat yang merupakan kewajiban paling ringan bagi penjual dan pembeli, yaitu masing – masing pihak wajib memikul semua biaya dan resiko yang terkait dengan kewajiban untuk mengambil barang – barang itu dari tempat penjual.

Apabila pihak – pihak menginginkan penjual bertanggung jawab untuk memuat barang – barang pada saat pemberangkatan dan memikul semua resiko dan biaya pemuatan, maka hal tersebut harus dijelaskan dengan cara menambah kata – kata yang tegas di dalam kontrak jual beli.

2. FCA: Free Carrier (named place)

Bahwa penjual melakukan penyerahan barang – barang yang sudah mendapat ijin ekspor, kepada pengangkut yang ditunjuk pembeli di tempat tersebut.

Catatan:

Pemilihan tempat penyerahan barang – barang mempunyai dampak pada kewajiban bongkar muat barang – barang d tempat itu.

Jika penyerahan terjadi di tempat penjual makapenjual bertanggung jawab untuk memuat. Jika penyerahan terjadi di tempat lain maka penjual tidak bertanggung jawab untuk membongkar.

3. FAS: Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment)

Bah penjual melakukan penyerahan barang – barang, bila barang – barang itu ditempatkan di samping kapal di pelabuhan  pengapalan yang disebut.

Hal ini bearti bahwa pembeli wajib memikul semua biaya dan semua resiko kehilangan atau kerusakan atas barang – barang mulai saat itu.

4. FOB: Free on Board (named port of shipment)

Penjual melakukan penyerahan barang – barang bila barang – barang melewati pagar kapal di pelabuhan pengapalan yang disebut.

Hal tersebut bearti bahwa pembeli wajib memikul semua biaya dan resiko atas kehilangan atau kerusakan barang mulai dari titik itu. Syarat ini menuntut penjual untuk mengurus formalitas ekspor.

 Syarat ini hanya dapat dipakai untuk angkutan laut dan sungai saja.

5. CFR: Cost on Freight (named port of destination)

Penjual melakukan penyerahan barang – barang bila barang – barang melewati pagar kapal di pelabuhan pengapalan. Dalam hal ini penjual wajib membayar biaya – biaya dan ongkos angkut yang perlu untuk mengangkut barang – barang itu samapi ke pelabuhan tujuan yang disebut.

 Resiko kehilangan ataupun kerusakan atas barang – barang tersebut termasuk setiap biaya tambahan sehubungan dengan peristiwa yang terjadi setelah waktu penyerahan itu berpindah dari penjual kepada pembeli.

 Syarat ini hanya dapat berlaku untuk angkutan laut dan sungai.

6. CIF : Cost, Insurance, and freight (named port of destination)

Bahwa penjual melakukan penyerahan barang – barang kepada pengangkut yang ditunjuknya sendiri, tetapi penjual wajib pula membayar ongkos – ongkos angkut yang perlu untuk mengangkut barang – barang itu sampai ke tempat tujuan.

 Hal tersebut bearti bahwa pembeli memikul semua resiko dan membayar semua ongkos yang timbul setelah barang – barang yang wajib setelah barang – barang

7. CPT: Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)

Adalah bahwa penjual menyerahkan barang – barang kepada pengangkut yang ditunjuknya sendiri, tetapi penjual wajib membayar ongkos angkut yang perlu untuk mengangkut barang – barang tersebut sampai ke tempat tujuan.

 Hal ini bearti bahwa pembeli memikul semua resiko dan membayar setiap ongkos yang timbul setelah barang – barang yang diserahkan secara demikian.

 Syarat ini mewajibkan penjual mengurus formalitas ekspor dan berlaku untuk alat angkut apa saja termasuk angkutan aneka wahana (multimode transport).

8. CIP : Carriage an Insurance Paid To (named place of destination)

Penjual menyerahkan barang – barang kepada pengangkut yang ditunjuknya sediri, namun penjual wajib pula membayar ongkos angkut yang perlu untuk mengangkut barang – barang itu sampai ke tempat tujuan yang telah disebut.

 Bearti pembeli memikul semua resiko dan membayar semua ongkos yang timbul setelah barang – barang yang diserahkan secara demikian.

 Penjual juga wajib menutup asuransi terhadap resiko kerugian dan kerusakan atas barang – barang yang menimpa pembeli selama barang – barang  dalam perjalanan.

 Syarat ini berlaku bagi alat angkut apa saja.

9. DAF : Delivered at frontier (named place)

Bahwa penjual menyerahkan barang – barang bila barang – barang tersebut telah ditempatkan ke dalam kewenangan pembeli saat datangnya alat angkut, belum dibongkar, sudah diurus formalitas impornya di tempat atau pada titik yang disebut di wilayah perbatasan tetapi belum memasuki wilayah pabean dari negara yang bertetangga.

 Syarat ini berlaku untuk alat angkut apasaja bilamana barang – barang tersebut harus diserahkan di perbatasan darat. Bila penyerahan dilakukan di pelabuhan maka penyerahan harus dilakukan di pelabuhan tujuan, di atas kapal, atau di dermaga agar dapat dipakai syarat DES dan DEQ.

10. DES :  Delivered Es Ship (named port of destination)

Adalah apabila penjual menyerahkan barang – barang bila barang – barang itu ditempatkan ke dalam kewenangan pembeli di atas kapal, belum diurus formalitas impornya, dipelabuhan tujuan yang disebut.

 Penjual wajib memikul semua biaya dan resiko yang terkait dengan pengangkutan barang – barang itu samapi ke pelabuhan tujuan yang disebut sebelum dibongkar.

 Syarat ini hanya dipakai bila barang – barang akan diserahkan melalui laut atau sungai atau dengan alat angkut aneka wahana di atas kapal di pelabuhan tujuan.

11. DEQ :  Delivered Ex Quay (named port of destination)

Penjual menyerahkan barang – barang bila barang – barang itu ditempatkan ke dalam kewenangan pembeli di atas dermaga, belum di urus formalitas impornya, di pelabuhan tujuan yang disebut. Penjual wajib membayar semua biaya dan resko yang terkait dengan pengangkutan barang – barang itu samapi ke pelabuhan tujuan yang disebut dan membongkar barang – barang itu sampai ke pelabuhan tujuan yang disebut dan membongkar barang – barang tersebut di atas dermaga.

 Bila pihak – pihak terkait menginginkan untuk memasukkan menjadi tanggung jawab penjual, semua resiko dan biaya pengelolaan barang – barang mulai dari dermaga ke tempat – tempat lain di dalam kawasan pelabatau diluar kawasan, maka di pakai syarat DDU atau DDP

12. DDU :  Delivered Duty unpaid (named place of destination)

Adalah penjual menyerahkan barang – barang kepada pembeli, belum diurus formlitas impornya, dan belum dibongkar dari atas alat angkut yang baru datang di tempat tujuan yang disebut. Penjual wajib memikul semua biaya dan resiko yang terkait dengan pengangkutan barang – barang itu sampai ke sana, kecuali bea masuk yang diperlukan di negara tujuan. Bea masuk ini menjadi tanggung jawab pembeli, termasuk semua biaya dan reiko yang disebabkan oleh kegagalan mengurus formalitas impor pada waktunya.

 Syarat ini dipaki untuk alat angkut apa saja, tetapi apabila penyerahan barang akan dilakukan di pelabuhan tujuan di atas kapal atau di atas dermaga, supaya dipakai syarat DES atau DEQ

13. DDP :  Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)

Yaitu penjual menyerahkan barang – barang kepada pembeli sudah diurus formalitas impornya, tetapi belum dibongkar dari atas alat angkut yang baru datang di tempat tujuan yang disebut. Penjual wajib memikul semua biaya dan resiko yang terkait dengan pengangkutan barang – barang itu sampai ke sana, termasuk bea masuk apa pun yang diperlukan di negara tujuan.

 Syarat ini boleh dipakai untuk jenis alat angkut mana saja

Contoh penggunaan Incoterms 2000:

  • FCA Jakarta Incoterms 2000
  • FOB Liverpool Incoterms 2000
  • DDU Frankfurt Schmidt GmbH Warehouse 4 Incoterms 2000

Incoterms Robert Wielgorski EN.PNG

Istilah-istilah yg biasa di pakai 

1 / 2 SB One or two safe berth(s).
1 / 2 SP One or two safe port(s)..
1 OPT 1 One year, option another one year
A & CP Anchors and chains proved.
A.B.O. ABO As brokers only
A.P. OR A/P After peak Tank
a/f Also for (referring to ports to be touched by the ship).
A/S Alongside
Aa (AA) Always afloat.
AAAA Always afloat and (always) accessible.
AARA Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area
AB Above bridges.
Abt About.
ACP African, Caribbean, Pacific countries.
Ad val. Ad Valorem (duty).
ADCOM/Addcomm Address commission.
ADV Advise
AF Advance freight.
AFRA Average freight rate assessments.
AFSPS Arrival First Sea Piolt Station
AFT At or towards the stern or rear of a ship
AG Arabian Gulf (also referred to as PG Persian Gulf)
AGRIPODS Agricultural products.
AGW All going well.
AGWWP All going well weather permitting.
AH Range of ports between and including Antwerp and Hamburg.
Ah (AH) After hatch
AhL Australian hold ladders.
AICS Associate of Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, London.
AIMS American Institute of Merchant Shipping.
ANTHAM Antwerp-Hamburg Range
AOG Act of God.
Ap or A/P Aft perpendicular (of ship); after peak; all purposes; additional premium.
Apl American Petroleum Institute.
APS Arrival Pilot Station
APT After peak tank.
AR Antwerp – Rotterdam range.
AR Arrived.
ARA Antwerp – Rotterdam – Amsterdam range of ports.
ARAG Amsterdam-Rotterdam–Antwerp-Gent Range
ARAGH Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam-Ghent.
ARH Antwerp – Rotterdam – Hamburg range.
ARHB Antwerp – Rotterdam – Hamburg – Bremen range.
ASA Always safe(ly) afloat.
ASAP (asap) As soon as possible.
ASBA Association of Shipbrokers and Agents.
ATA Actual Time of arrival
ATDN Any time day and night.
ATDNSHINC Any Time Day/Night Sundays and Holidays UIncluded
ATN Aids to Navigation
ATRS American Tank Rate Schedule.
ATS Actual time saved or All time saved.
ATSB/ATSBE All time saved both ends.
ATSDO All time saved loading only.
ATUTC Actual Times Used to Count
AWH Available workable hatches.
AWTSBE All working time saved both ends.
AWTSDO All working time saved discharging only.
AWTSLO All working time saved loading only.
AWTWL All within Institute Warranty Limits.
B (Bl) Bale capacity; bale; ballast.
B S S 1/1 Basis 1 port to 1 port
B.H.(range) Range of ports between and including Bordeaux & Hamburg
b.o. Buyer’s option; broker’s order.
B.P.(bp/b.p.) Between perpendiculars; boiling point (gases).
B.S. Boiler survey; bunker surcharge.
B.S. & W. Bottom (or base) sediment and water.
b/d Barrels per day.
B/E Break even; (customs) bill of entry; bill of exchange.
B/E (Bends) Both ends.
b/h Barrels per hour.
B/L/b lading (Bs/L) Bill of Lading (plural of B/L).
B/N (b/n) Booking note.
B/O (b/o) Bulk/oil carrier.
B/R Bordeaux of Rouen.
BA Buenos Aires.
BACAT Barge aboard catamaran
BAF Bunker Adjustment Factor
Bar (brl) Barrel.
BB Ballast bonus; bar bound; below bridges; bulbous bow; bareboat, bare boat charter
BBB Before Breaking Bulk
BBCD Bareboat-cum-demise.
BC British Columbia; British Channel.
BD Bar draft, below deck.
BDI Both dates (days) inclusive (or included).
BEAM The maximum breadth of a ship
BENDS Both Ends (Load & Discharge Ports)
BENELUX Belguim, the Netherlands and Luxembourg
Bext. Breadth extreme.
BFI Baltic Freight Index
BFO Bunker fuel oil.
BH (B/H) Bill of health; bulkhead.
BHF Bulk harmless fertilizers.
Bhp (BHP) Brake horse power (oil engines).
Bi/Bl Both inclusive.
BIBO Bulk in, bag out.
BIFFEX The Baltic International Freight Futures Exchange
BIMCO Baltic & International Maritime Council
BK Bar keel.
BL Bale
BL Bill of Lading
BLK Bulk.
BLSEA Baltic Sea.
BLST (BST) Ballast.
BM Beam
BOA Berthing on arrival.
BOB Bunker on Board
BOD Board of Directors.
BOFFER(S) Best Offer(s)
BOR Bunkers on re-delivery.
BORO Bulk, Oil and roll-on, roll-off vessel.
BROB Bunkers Remaining on Board
BS Broken Stowage
BSS Basis
BSS 1/1 Basis 1 Port to 1 Port
BST British Summer Time, British Standard Time.
BT (bt) Berth terms.
BTD Butadiene (cargo for gas carrier).
BTU British Thermal Unit.
BW/BWA Brackish water/ brackish water allowance.
BWAD Brackish Water Arrival Draft
BWDD Brackish water departure draft.
C Shine, Sundays and holidays included.
C & F (CFR) Cost and freight.
C and/or J China and/or Japan.
C of B Centre of Buoyancy
C&F Cost and Freight
C&F FO Cost & Freight Free Out
c.f.g cubic feet of gas
c.f.g.d./hr./min cubic feet of gas per day / hour / minute
c.f.hr./sec. cubic feet per hour/second
C.I.F. Cost, insurance and freight.
C.I.F. & E. Cost, insurance, freight and exchange.
C.I.F.F.I. Cost, insurance, freight, commission and interest.
C.I.F.F.O. Cost, insurance, freight, and free out.
C.I.F.I. & E. Cost, insurance, freight, interest and exchange.
c.i.f.l.t. (CIFLT) Cost, insurance and freight, London terms.
c.m.p.s centimetres per second
C.O. Country of origin; cargo oil; case oil
c.o.d. Cash on delivery.
C/N Credit Note
C/P (c/p orCP) Charter party.
C/V/E Cable, victuals and entertainment.
CABAF Currency and bunkering adjustment factors.
CABE (cabe) Charterer’s agents both ends.
CAF Currency adjustment factor.
CAN Calcium ammonium nitrate (cargo).
CAR (CARIB) Carribean Islands.
CB & H Cont. (BH) Continent between Bordeaux and Hamburg.
CBFT (or CFT) Cubic Feet
CBM Cubic Meter
CBT Clean ballast tanks
cc.hr./min Cubic centimeter per hour/minute
CD Customary Despatch
CENSA(pron.Kensa) Council of European and Japanese National Shipowners Associations.
CFR (or C&F) Cost and Freight
CH & H Continent between Le Havre and Hamburg
CHA Customs house agent.
CHINPAC China Sea, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
CHN China.
CHOPT Charterers Option
CHRTS Charterer’s
CIF Cost, Insurance & Freight.
CIM International Convention Concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail.
CIP Carriage and insurance paid to.
CKD Completely knocked down
CLC Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969.a
CMI Comite Maritime International.
CMR Convention on the Contract for Intrntnl Carriage of Goods by Road.
cnr Charter not reported.
COA Contract of Affreightment.
COACP Contract of Affreightment Charter Party
COB Cargo on board; close of business.
COD Cas On Delivery
COFR Certificate of Financial Responsibility.
COGS (COGSA) Carriage of Goods by Sea (Act).
COMP Completing.
CONFI Confidential.
CONS Consecutive; consumption.
Cont. (Cont.) Continent or Europe.
COP Custom Of Port
COW Crude Oil Washing
CP (or C/P) Charter Party
CPD Charterers Pay Dues
CPP Clean petroleum products.
CPT Carriage paid to.
CQD Customary Quick Despatch
CR (cr) Current rate; carrier’s risk.
CRD Current rate discharge.
CRISTAL Contract Regarding an Interim Settlement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution Damage.
CRL Current rate of load.
CRN Crane
CROB Cargo Remaining on Board
CS Laden Cape, ballast Suez.
CSC International Convention for Safe Containers
CSD Closed shelter deck
CST (c/s) Centistokes.
CT Centre tank; cargo tank; cubic tonnage of a ship.
CTO Combined transport operator
CTR Container Fitted
CVO Certificate of value and origin
CVs (consec) Consecutive voyages.
Cwt. Hundred weight.
CY Country yard
D ½ D (DHD) Despatch money payable at half demurrage rate. (Also demurrage, half dispatch).
D 1/2 D (d 1/2 D) Despatch money payable at half demurrage rate
D.O. Delivery Order
d.p. Direct port.
D.T. Deep Tank
D/A (DA) Discharge afloat, Disbursement Account
D/C Deviation clause; (in) direct continuation.
D/P Documents against payment
D/R/D Dunnage, removal and disposal.
daa Discharge always afloat.
DAF Delivered at frontier.
DAMFORDET Damages for Detention.
DAP (DAPS) Days all purpose; di-ammonium phosphate (fertilizer).
DB (db) Double bottom.
DBB (d. b. b.) Deals, battens and boards (timber).
DBE Despatch payable both ends
DBEATS Despatch (payable) both ends, all time saved
DBEWTS Despatch (payable) both ends, working time saved.
DBT Double Bottom Tanks
DD Daily discharge; dry docking.
DDGS Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles
DDO (ddo) Despatch discharging only.
DDP Delivered duty paid.
DDU Delivered duty unpaid.
DEC De-ratting exemption certificate.
DEL (DELY) Delivery.
DEM Demurrage (Quay Rent).
DEM-DES(P) Demurrage and dispatch.
DEQ Delivered ex-quay
Der (DR) Derricks.
DES Delivered ex-ship
DET Detention
DETS Details.
DF Dead Freight
DFD Demurrage, free dispatch.
Dft Draft (also spelt, draught).
dh Double hull.
DHD Despatch half demurrage
DHDATSBE Dispatch Half Demurrage on All Time Saved Both Ends
DHDWTSBE Dispatch Half Demurrage on Working TIme Saved Both Ends
DIRTY Crude black oil.
DISCH Discharge
DK Deck
DLOSP Dropping last outward sea pilot.
DLY Daily.
DNRCAOSLONL Discountless and Non-Returnable Cargo and/or Ship Lost or Not Lost
DO (d.o.) Diesel oil.
DOHP Dropping outward harbour pilot.
DOLSP Dropping Off Last Sea Pilot
DOP (dop) Dropping outward pilot.
DOSP Dropping outward sea pilot.
DOT Department of Transportation
DPD Discharge port disbursements.
DPP (d.p.p.) Dirty petroleum products.
DRATE Discharge rate.
DRC (d.r.c.) Daily running cost.
DRI Direct reduced iron (cargo).
DRK Derrick
DWA Dock water allowance.
DWAT (dwat) Deadweight all told.
DWCC(dwcc) Deadweight cargo capacity.
Dwct Deadweight cargo tons.
DWOC Decline without counter.
DWT Deadweight (tonnage).
E East.
e.o.h.p. Except otherwise herein provided.
E.O.P. End (completion) of passage.
EAT Expected (or estimated) arrival time.
Eb Empty ballast
EC East Coast; European Communities
ECCP East Coast (UK) coal port
ECGB East Coast of Great Britain.
ECI East coast of Ireland
ECM East coast of Mexico
ECNA East Coast of North America.
ECSA East Coast of South America.
ECUK East Coast of United Kingdom.
ECUS East Coast of U.S.A
EDI Electronic data interchange.
EGM Export general manifest.
EI East Indies
EIU Even if used.
ELVENT Electric Ventilation
ENE East North-East.
EOP End (Completion) of passage
EP Estimated position.
ERLOAD Expected ready to load.
ERV Each round voyage.
EST European Standard Time.
est. Estimated.
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival
ETBC Easy trimmer bulk carrier.
ETC Estimated Time of Completion
ETD Estimated Time of Departure
ETF Expected time of finishing
ETR Expected to be ready.
ETS Estimated Time of Sailing
EUROMED European Mediterranean.
EXW Ex Works
F Fresh water load line mark; forward; forecastle; Fahrenheit.
F & D Freight and demurrage
F.DESP Free dispatch.
F.DIS Free discharge.
FAC Fast as can
Faccop Fast as can, according to the custom of the port.
FAF Fuel adjustment factor
FAK Freight all kinds (containers)
FAS Free alongside; free arrival station.
FBD Freeboard.
FBL FIATA Combined transport bill of lading
FC Fund Convention (for oil pollution damage).
FCA Free to Carrier.
FCC First class charterer
FCL Full container load
FCS Fresh of capture and seizure.
FCSSS For Christ’s sake say something (slang).
FD Free discharge; free of dispatch.
FDD Freight Demurrage Deadfreight
FDEDANRSAOCLONL Freight Deemed Earned Discountless & Non-Refundable Ship &/or Cargo Lost Or Not Lost
FDESP Free Dispatch
FDIS Free Discharge
FEAST Far East
FEU Forty foot equivalent unit.
Ffa Free from alongside.
FFI For further instructions.
FH First half
FHEX Fridays, Holidays Excluded (Muslim Countries)
FHINC Fridays and holidays included.
FIB Free into barge; free into bunkers.
FICS Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, London.
FILO Free in and liner out.
FILTD Free in, liner terms discharge
FIO Free In/Out.
FIOLS Free in and out, lashed and secured.
FIOS Free in and out, and stowed.
FIOSpT Fee in and out, spout trimmed.
FIOST Free in and out, stowed and trimmed.
FIOT Free In/Out and Trimmed.
FISLSD/LO Free in, stowed, lashed, secured and dunnaged /liner out.
FIT Free In Trimmed OR Free of income tax
FIW Free In Wagon
FLASH Feeder lighter aboard ship
FLT Full liner terms; forklift truck.
FMC Federal Maritime Commission
FMS Fathoms
FO Free overside; fuel oil; furnace oil; for orders; free out.
FO (IFO) Fuel Oil/Intermediate FO
FOB Free on Board.
FOBS Free on board and stowed.
FOBT Free on board and trimmed.
FOC Flag of Convennience; free of conveyance; also free of charge
FOD Free of damage.
FOFFER Firm Offer
FOG For Our Guidance
FOM Flag, ownership and management.
FONASBA Federation of National Association of Shipbrokers and Agents
FOQ Free on quay.
FOR Free On Rail
FOS Free on ship.
FOT Free On Truck
FOW First open water; free on wharf; free on wagon.
FP (In) free pratique; flash point.
FT Fuel terms; also, full terms.
FTTM First thing tomorrow morning.
FV Fishing vessel.
FW Fresh water.
FWA Fresh water allowance.
FWAD Fresh Water Arrival Draft
Fwd Forward.
FWDD Fresh Water Departure Draft
FYG For your guidance.
FYI For Your Information
G Grain capacity.
G.A. General Average.
G.B. Great Britain.
G/B (GR/BL) Grain / bale capacity.
GBB Gross ballast bonus.
GC General cargo; great circle.
GENCAR General cargo.
GEOG RTN In geographical rotation.
G-H RGE Gibraltar – Hamburg range
GIB Gibraltar.
GLESS Gear less – Vessel with out cranes or derricks
GLFD Gas oil.
GLS Gearless – Vessel with out cranes or derricks
GN (or GR) Grain (capacity)
GNCN Gencon (General Conditions)
GO Gas Oil
GOP Gross operating profit.
GP General purpose
GRD Geared.
GRT Gross register ton.
GSB Good Safe Berth
GSP Good Safe Port
GSSL Ports of Genoa, Savona, Spezia or Leghorn.
GSSLNCV Ports of Genoa, Savona, Spezia, Leghorn, Naples, Civetta or Vecchia
GT Gross tonnage.
GTEE Guarantee
Guar. (Gtee) Guaranteed.
H.A. or D. Le Havre, Antwerp or Dunkirk.
H.H. (H/H) Ports between and inclusive of Le Havre and Hamburg.
Ha Hatch, hatchway.
HAT Highest astronomical tide.
HBR Hamburg range.
HC hatch cover; hold cleaning.
HCHTRS Head charterers.
HCM Ho Chi Minh City.
HD Half dispatch.
HDLTSBENDS Half Dispatch Lay Time Saved Both Ends
HDWTS Half Despatch Working Time Saved
HDWTSBE Half dispatch working time saved both ends
HFO Heavy fuel oil.
HG Heavy grain.
HHDW Handy Heavy d.w. (scrap)
HHDWS Heavy, handy, deadweight scrap
HLESS Harmless
HMB Heavy motor block
HMS Heavy Melting Scrap
HNS Hazardous and Noxious Substances
HO Hold
Ho/Ha Holds/hatches.
HR/HRDS Hampton Roads
HSD High speed diesel.
HSS Heavy grains, Soyabeans and sorghums
HVF Heavy viscosity fuel oil.
HW High Water
HWDW Heavy, handy, dead weight.
HWLTHC Height waterline to top hatch.
HWONT High water at ordinary neap tides
HWOST High water at ordinary spring tides
I.A.C.S. (IACS) International Association of Classification Societies.
IATA International Air Transport Association.
IBC Intermediate bulk carrier.
ICC International Chamber of Commerce.
ICS Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers; International Chamber of Shipping.
IDL International Date Line.
IFO Intermediate fuel oil.
IGM Import general manifest.
IGS Inert Gas System.
IHAM Immigham
IHP Indicated horse power.
ILO International Labour Organisation, Geneva.
ILOHC In lieu of hold cleaning.
ILOW In lieu of weighing.
IMB International Maritime Bureau.
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods
IMO International Maritime Organisation
IN&/OR OVER Goods carried below or on deck
IND Indication
INDO Indonesia.
INMARSAT International Maritime Convention on Communication by Satellite.
INTERCARGO International Association of Dry Cargo shipowners.
INTERTANKO International Association of Independent Tanker Owners.
IOPC International Oil Pollution Compensation
IOT (INCLOT) Including overtime.
ISF International Shipping Federation.
ISM International Safety Management (Code).
ISO International Standards Organisation.
ITF International Transport Worker’s Federation.
IU If Used
IUATUC If used actual time used to count
IUHTAUTC If Used, Half Time Actually to Count
IWL Institute Warranty Limits
j. & w.o. Jettison and washing overboard.
JBL Jubail
Jett Jettison.
JV Joint venture.
K “000” i.e. thousand, e.g. 2K = two thousand.
k, kn, knt, kt, knot Knot; nautical miles (6080 feet or 1853 metres) per hour.
KMT Distance from keel to mast.
KRS Koreans.
L Laden.
L/D Loading/discharging.
LA Los Angeles
LASH Lighter aboard ship (barge carrier).
LAT Lowest austronomical tide; latitude.
Lay/can (L/C, LYCN) Laydays commencing/ laydays canceling (dates) or laydays/canceling.
LB Long Beach
LBP Length between perpendiculars.
LC (L/C) London clause; letter of credit; laycan.
LCI Lambert’s Capesize Index.
Lcr Lowest current rate.
LDN London; Laden
LDO Light diesel oil.
LDPT Load Port
LEFO Land’s end for orders.
LGFM Lond Grain Fixures Market
LHAR London, Hull, Amsterdam or Rotterdam.
LIFO Liner in, Free out; Last in, First out
LL Laden legs; loadlines.
LLT London landed terms.
LM Lane metres.
LMC Lloyd’s machinery certificate.
LNG Liquefied natural gas (carrier).
LO Lubricating oil.
LO/LO Load-on and load-off or Lift-on and lift-off vessel.
LOA Length Overall of the vessel
LOF Lloyd’s Open Form. (Salvage Agreement), 1995.
LOI Letter of indemnity.
LOW Last open water.
LPD Load port disbursements.
LPG Liquified petroleum gas
Lpl Liverpool
LQT Liverpool quay terms.
LRATE Load rate.
LS Lumber (timber) summer loadline.
LS (or LUMPS) Lumpsum
LSD Landing ship dock; landing, storage and delivery
LSD Lashed Secured Dunnaged
LSLSDU Loaded, stowed, lasned, secured, dunnaged and unlashed.
LT (It/Its) Long ton; liner terms; London terms.
Lt. V Light vessel.
LTBENDS Liner terms, both ends.
LTS (BE) Laytime saved (both ends).
LW Low Water
LWNA Lumber Winter North Atlantic (loadline).
LYCN Laycan (Layday Cancelling Date)
M Metre; measure; measurement.
M/R Mate’s receipt.
M/V Motor Vessel
MAA Mina Al Ahmadi
MAP Mono-ammonium phosphate
MARPOL Convention for the Prevention of Maritime Pollution from ships (1973/1978).
MATS Material(s), (i.e. dunnage).
MB Merchant Broker
MB/T Motor blocks/ turnings.
MBTE Methyl, butyl, tertiaer ether
MDO Marine diesel oil.
MED Mediteranean
MEX Mexico.
MH Main hatch.
MHWN Mean high water neaps (formerly, HWONT).
MHWS Mean high water springs (formerly, HWOST).
MIC Man-in-charge.
MICS Member of the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, London.
MIN/MAX Minimum/Maximum
MIO Millon(s).
ML Motor launch.
MLD Moulded.
MLLW Mean low low water.
MLS Miles.
MLW Mean low low water.
MLWN Mean low water neaps
MLWS Mean low water springs
MOL More or Less
MOLCHOPT More or Less Charterers Option
MOLOO More or Less Owners Option
MOP Muriate of Potash (fertiliser)
MOS Months.
MPP Multi-purpose (vessel).
MRX Medium range cross-purpose tanker.
MS Motor shop; motor spirit; machinery survey.
MSA Merchant Shipping Act.
MSC Manchester Ship Canal; Maritime Safety Committee (of IMO).
MSDS M.S.D.S Material Safety Data Sheet
Mst Measurement.
MSV Motor support vessel.
Mt Empty.
MT Metric ton (tonne); multimodal transport; main terms; motor tanker.
MTL Mean tidal level.
MTO Multimodal transport operator.
MTPA Million metric tonnes per annum.
MV Motor vessel.
N And
N CONT (NO CONT) North Continent.
N(NTH) North.
n.E. Not east of.
n.e.p.(NEP) Not elsewhere provided.
n.m. Nautical mile.
n.N.(N/N) Not north of
N.O.P. Net operating profit.
n.o.p. Not otherwise provided.
n.S. Not south of.
n.W. Not west of.
N.Y.T. New York Standard Time.
N/B New building.
N/t New terms (grain trade).
NA North Atlantic; North America; nearest approach.
NAA Not always Afloat
NAABSA Not Always Afloat but Safely Aground
NCB National Cargo Bureau
NCSA North Coast South America
NES(n.e.s) Not elsewhere specified.
NEW North West Europe
NEWCT North East of West Coast Italy.
NHP Nominal horse power.
NJ New Jason clause in C/P.
NMPD Nautical miles per day.
NNGWB Not north of George Washington Bridge (i.e. New York).
NOLA New Orleans
NOPAC North Pacific (Ports)
NOR (N/R) Notice of Readiness.
NOR T & A Notice of Readiness tendered and accepted.
NORT Notice of Readiness tendered.
NPK Nitro Phosphatic Kompound
NR Northern Range of Ports (in US)
NR T (nrt) Not register tonnage.
NRT Net Restricted Tonnage
NS No sparring.
NSW New South Wales (Australia)
NT Net tonnage; neap tides; new tonnage.
NTC Not to count.
NTCEIU Not to count, even if used.
NTCEUU Not to count, unless used.
NVOCC Non-vessel owing common carrier.
NY (NYK) New York.
NYPE New York Produce Exchange
O.O. Owner’s option.
o.t. Overtime.
O/B On board.
O/C Open charter; ore carrier
O/D Over deck.
O/O Oil/ore (or ore/oil) carrier.
o/w Outward.
oa Overall
OA OK Overage okay.
oaaoop On arrival at or of the port.
OABE Owners agents both ends
OAFSP On arrival first sea pilot.
OAGE Overage.
OAHPS On arrival harbour pilot station
OAL Overall length (same as LOA).
OAPEC Organisation of Arabic Petroleum Exporting Countries.
OBO Oil, bulk, ore carrier.
OBQ On board quantity.
Oc B/L Ocean bill of lading.
OCC Outward clearance certificate; Oil Co-ordination Committee.
OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum
ODM Oil discharge monitor
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
O-H (O/H) Off-hire.
OHBC Open hatch bulk carrier.
OO Owners Option
OPA (US) Oil Pollution Act, 1990 or Owners Protecting Agent
OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
OPT(opt) Option.
OSB One safe berth.
OSD/CSD Open shelter deck or closed shelter deck (vessel).
OSH Open Shelter Deck
OSP One safe port.
OSPB One safe port or berth.
OSV Offshore supply vessel.
OWS Owners
P & I (PANDI) Protection and Indemnity (Club).
P + C (P AND C) Private and confidential.
p.f.t. Per freight ton.
p.p. (pp) Picked ports.
p.p.i. Policy proof of interest.
p.t. (PT) Per ton; private terms.
PA (P/A) Particular average.
PAD Pacific Australia Direct
PASTUS Past Us
PAT Pen Air Turnover = air volume m3 per h / pen area m2
PB Permanent bunkers; poop and bridge.
PBF Poop, bridge and forecastle.
PC Period of Charter, Port Clearance
pc Part cargo, parcel cargo.
PCC Pure car carrier.
PCGO Part Cargo
PCM Per calender month (hire).
PCNT Panama Canal Net Tonnage.
PCO (PICO) Port in charterer’s option.
PCT Percent
PCTC Pure car and truck carrier.
PD Port dues.
PDPR Per day pro-rata.
PER SE By Itself
PERDIEM By the Day
PG (P/G) Persian Gulf (also, referred as AG = Arabian Gulf)
PHC Port handling charges.
PHD Per hatch per day.
PHO Port health officer.
PHPD Per Hatch Per Day
PIC Person in charge.
PIOPIC P & I Oil Pollution Indemnity Clause.
PLS Please
PMO Passing Muscat outbound
PMT Per metric ton.
POA Place of acceptance.
POB Pilot on board.
poc (POC) Port of call.
pod (POD) Port of Discharge
POL Petroleum, oil and lube Or Port of Loading
por (POR) Port of refuge.
PPS Pumps (capacity in cubic metres).
PPT Prompt
PPUK Picked ports of U.K
PQ Province of Quebec.
PRC People’s Republic of China.
PSG Passing
PSI Pounds per square inch; pre shipment inspection.
pssg (PSSG) Passing.
PST Pacific Standard Time.
pt B Port bunkers.
PUS Past us.
PWWD Per Weather Working day
q.c Quantity at Captain’s option
q.n. Quotation.
qlty Quality.
Quad Canada, EC, Japan & US
QWT Quay weight
R of T Range of tide.
r.d. Running days.
R/E Rate of exchange.
R/P Return to port for orders.
R/T Revenue ton.
R/V (RV) Round voyage.
RAPL Rotterdam – Amsterdam Pipeline.
RBAY Richards Bay
RBCT Richards Boy Coal Terminal.
RCN Research octane number.
RCVR Receivers
RDC (rdc) Running down clause.
Rds Roads.
Re-cap Recapitulation (summary of main points).
RED Rate, extras demurrage.
REDEL Re-delivery.
RELET To sub-charter
RNR Rate not reported.
Roads (roads) Anchorage Area
ROB Remaining on board.
RORO (ro-ro) Roll-on/roll-off (vessel).
RPM Revolutions (or rotations) per minute.
RPS Revolutions (or rotations) per second.
RPT Repeat.
RT Right time of ship departure/arrival or rye terms.
RT Revenue Tonne
RTBA Rate to be agreed.
RTD Round trip distance.
RUW Ruwais (port)
S Summer loadline; south.
S & P (S AND P) Sale and purchase.
S d/k Shelter deck.
s.s. & c. Same sea and country coast.
S/a Safe arrival; subject to approval.
S/A (S.A.) South America; South Australia; South Africa; safe anchorage; Salvage Association.
S/F (SOF) Statement of facts.
S/N Shipping note.
S/o Shipowner.
S/S Suez laden, Suez ballast.
SA/SHEX Saturday afternoon/Sundays and holidays excepted.
SABIO Stem and Berth in order
SATPM Saturday P.M.
SATSHEX/SSHEX Saturdays, Sundays and holidays excepted.
SB Safe berth.
SBE Standby engine.
SBM Single buoy mooring (for oil tankers); soyabean meal (cargo).
SBT Segregated ballast tanks.
SC Slot Charter
SCNT Suez Canal Net Tonnage.
SD Single deck; self-discharging.
SDBC Single Decker bulk carrier
SDR Special Drawing Rights (IMF).
SDWT (sdwt) Summer deadweight.
SEA South east Asia
SELFD Self Discharging
SEMI-TRAILERS Are usually 12.0 meter flatbed road trailers
SF San Francisco; Summer Freeboard; Stowage factor.
SG Specific gravity.
SH Second Half
SHEX Sundays and holidays excepted.
SHEXEIU Sundays and holidays excepted, even if used.
SHEXUU Sundays and holidays excepted, unless used.
SHINC Sundays, Holidays Included
SHU Shuaibu (port).
Sim Sub Similar substitute.
SITPRO Simplification of International Trade Procedures (Board).
SKO Superior kerosene oil.
SKOR South Korea
SL Sailed.
SLT Sludge Tank
SOB Shipped on board.
SOC Shipper Owned Container
SOF Statement of Facts
SOLAS International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea (1974/78).
SP Safe Port
SPASS Skaw – Passero (range)
spd Ship pays dues; speed.
SPM Single point mooring.
SPN Spain
SPT (spt) Spot.
SRBL Signing and Releasing Bill of Lading
SS Service speed; steamship; special survey.
SSHEX (or SATSHEX) Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Excluded
SSHINC (or SATSHINC) Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Included
SSW Summer salt water.
STBC Self-trimming bulk carrier
Stc Said to contain
STCW Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch Keeping for Seafarers.
STD (std) Standard (timber trade).
STEM Subject To Enough Merchandise (Availability of Cargo)
STERN The aformost part of a ship
Sth South
STL Steel.
Stoa Subject to owner’s approval.
Stw Said to weigh.
SUB Subject (to)
Sub open Subject open
Sub stem Subject stem (availability of cargo).
Subdets Subject details (of C/P).
SUBDGS Subject to Director-General of Shipping approval.
SUBs Subjects (fixed on)
SUIT Suitable.
SV Sailing vessel.
SW Salt water; shipper’s weight.
SWAD Salt Water Arrival Draft
SWDD Salt water departure draft.
SWL Safe working load (of cranes, derricks).
T Tropical loadline
T/C Trip (TCT) Time charter trip.
T/P Trans Pacific.
T/S Time sheet; transshipment.
TAFHEX Thursday afternoons Fridays and holidays excepted.
TARV (TA R/V) Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
TBA To be advised.
TBD To be declared.
TBMA To be mutually agreed.
TBN To be nominated
TC (T/C, t/c) Time charter.
TCE Time charter equivalent.
TCH Time charter hire
TCM Convention on the International Combined Transport of Goods.
TCT Time charter Trip, timecharter trip
TCY Time charter yield
TDK Tween decker.
TDW (tdw) Tons deadweight.
TECH Toxic, explosive, corrosive and hazardous (dangerous cargo)
TEU Twenty foot equivalent unit.
TF Tropical fresh water loadline.
THC Terminal handling charges,
TIB Trimmed in bunkers.
TIP Takind inward pilot
TMK Tonnage mark.
TNC Time to next cargo
TNGE Tonnage.
TOTCOM Total commission.
TOVALOP Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement Concerning Liability for oil Pollution
Tp Time in port.
TPC Tons per centimeter (immersion).
TPCM Tons per cubic metre
TPD Tons per day.
TPI Tons per inch
TPRV (TP R/V) Trans Pacific Round Voyage
TR Tons registered.
TRND To be renamed.
Ts Time at sea.
TSP Triple super phosphate
TST Topside tank.
TT Telegraphic transfer
TTL Total
TW Tween Decker
TWHD Tons per working or workable hatch per day.
TYT Thanks your telex.
U.K.f.o. United Kingdom for orders.
U.K.H.A.D. United Kingdom and Le Havre-Antwerp-Dunkirk range.
U.K.H.H. United Kingdom and Le Havre-Hamburg range.
UCE Unforeseen circumstances excepted
U/D Under deck.
UK/Cont (B.H.) United Kingdom or Continent (Bordeaux-Hamburg range).
UK/Cont (G.H.) United Kingdom or Continent (Gibraltar-Hamburg range).
UK/Cont (H.H.) United Kingdom or Continent (Le Havre-Hamburg range).
UKC United Kingdom or Continent
ULCC Ultra large crude carrier.
UNCITRAL United Nations’ Commission on International Trade Law.
UNCTAD United Nations’ Commission on Trade and Development.
USAC United States Atlantic Coast.
USC Unless sooner commenced.
USCG United States Coast Guard.
USEC (USEA) United States East Coast.
USG United States Gulf of Mexico.
USNH United States North of (Cape) Hatteras (northern range).
USNP United States North Pacific.
USSH United States South of (Cape) Hatteras.
USWC (USWE) United States West Coast.
UU Unless Used
UUIWCTAUTC Unless Used In Which Case Time Actually Used To Count
V/C Voyage charter
VGO Vacuum gas oil.
VLOO Very large ore/oiler (carrier).
VOC Vessel operating carrier.
VPD Vessel Pays Dues
VTMS Vessel traffic management system.
VTS Vessel traffic system
W Winter loadline mark; Worldscale.
W/M Weight and/or measurement.
WAG West Asia gulf
WB Water ballast, waybill.
WCA West Coast Africa.
WCCOM (WICCON) Whether (in) customs cleared (clearance) or not.
WCCON Whether Customs Cleared Or Not
WCNA West Coast of North America.
WCSA West coast of South America
WCUK West Coast United Kingdom.
WCUS West Coast United States.
WD Working days.
WE/EI West Britain/East Ireland.
WECON Whether entered (in) Customs of not.
WEST Western Europe.
WFA With following alterations.
WHD Per working (workable) hatch per day.
WHT Wheat.
WHTC Wordscale—hours, terms and conditions.
WIBON Whether In Berth Or Not
WIFPON Whether in free pratique or not.
WIPON Whether In Port Or Not
WL Waterline.
WLTHC Waterline to top of hatch coaming.
WLTOHC Water Line-To-Hatch Coaming
WNA Winter North Atlantic loadline mark.
WOB Washed overboard.
WOG Without Guarantee
WP Weather Permitting
WPD Weather Permitting Day
WRIC Wire Rods In Coils
WS Worldscale
WT Wing tanks
WTSBE Working time saved both ends (Also, WTSBENDS).
WVNS Within Vessel’s natural segregation
WW Weather working.
WWAWIWL Worldwide and always within Institute Warranty Limits
WWD Weather Working Day
WWDSHEX Weather working days, Sundays and holidays excepted.
WWF Waterside Workers’ Federation
WWR When, Where Ready
WWWW Wibon, Wccon, Wifpon, Wipon
X Shex, Sundays and holidays excepted.
XS In excess of.
X-Whse Ex-warehouse.
YAR York Antwerp Rules
Z UTC = GMT
ABS: American Bureau of Shipping, a ship classification society.
Annual survey: The inspection of a vessel pursuant to international conventions, by a classification society surveyor, on behalf of the flag state, that takes place every year.
Bareboat charter: A charter in which the customer (the charterer) pays a fixed daily rate for a fixed period of time for the full use of the vessel and becomes responsible for all crewing, management and navigation of the vessel and the related expenses.
Brokerage commission: Commission payable by the ship’s owner to the broker, expressed as a percentage of the freight or hire and is part of the charterparty.
Bunker: Fuel, consisting of fuel oil and diesel, burned in a vessel’s engines.
Charter: The hiring of a vessel, or use of its carrying capacity, for a specified period of time.
Charterer: A person, firm or company hiring a vessel for the carriage of goods or other purposes.
Charterhire: The gross revenue earned by a vessel pursuant to a bareboat, time or voyage charter.
Charterparty: A contract covering the transportation of cargo by sea, including the terms of the carriage, remuneration and other terms.
Classification society: An independent society which certifies that a vessel has been built and maintained in accordance with the rules of such society and complies with the applicable rules and regulations of the flag state of such vessel and the international conventions of which that country is a member.
Double-hull: Hull construction technique by which a ship has an inner and outer hull, separated by void space, usually several feet in width.
Drydocking: The removal of a vessel from the water for inspection, maintenance and/or repair of submerged parts.
DNV: Det Norske Veritas, a ship classification society.
Dwt: Deadweight, a measure of oil tanker carrying capacity, usually in tons, based upon weight of cargo and other items necessary to submerge the vessel to its maximum permitted draft.
Flag state: The country where a vessel is registered.
Hire rate: The agreed sum or rate to be paid by the charterer for the use of the vessel.
Hull: Shell or body of a ship.
H&M: Hull and machinery insurance.
Ice Class 1A: A vessel meeting the requirements for transit through ice with a thickness of 0.8 meters or less.
IMO: International Maritime Organization, a United Nations agency that issues international trade standards for shipping.
Intermediate survey: The inspection of a vessel by a classification society surveyor that takes place every two and a half years after the special survey.
ISM Code: International Safety Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention, which, among other things, requires vessel owners to obtain a safety management certification for each vessel they manage.
ISPS: International Security Code for Ports and Ships, which enacts measures to detect and prevent security threats to ships and ports.
MARPOL The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.
Medium-range (MR): A tanker with a carrying capacity of 30,000-55,000 dwt which is used primarily for carrying a wide variety of refined oil products.
Newbuilding: A new vessel under construction or on order.
Off-hire: The time during which a vessel is not available for service.
Operating costs: The costs of the vessels including crewing costs, insurance, repairs and maintenance, stores, spares, lubricants and miscellaneous expenses (but excluding capital costs and voyage costs).
Operating days: The days a vessel is in operation for a period, measured by subtracting idle days from available days.
P&I: Protection and indemnity. This denotes the insurance coverage taken by a ship owner or charterer against third party liabilities such as oil pollution, cargo damage, crew injury or loss of life, etc.
P&I Association: A mutual insurance association providing P&I insurance coverage.
Product tanker: A tanker designed to carry a wide variety of liquid products, including clean products (such as refined petroleum products and edible oils) and crude oil. Product/chemical tankers also carry acids and other chemicals. The separated cargo tanks in both types of tankers are coated to prevent product contamination and hull corrosion.
Refined petroleum products: The resulting product recovered in an oil refinery at the various stages of processing crude oil, such as fuel oil, diesel and gasoil, kerosene and gasoline.
Sister ships: One or more vessels with the same specifications, typically built at the same shipyard.
SOLAS: International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, which provides, among other things, rules for the construction and equipment of commercial vessels.
Special survey (S/S): The extensive inspection of a vessel by a classification society surveyor that takes place every five years.
Spot market: The market for chartering a vessel for single voyages.
Tanker: A vessel that transports liquid (wet) cargoes, such as refined petroleum products, crude oil, edible oils and chemicals.
TCE (Time Charter Equivalent): A shipping industry performance measure used primarily to compare daily earnings generated by vessels on time charters with daily earnings generated by vessels on voyage charters, because charter hire rates for vessels on voyage charters are generally not expressed in per day amounts while charter hire rates for vessels on time charters generally are expressed in such amounts. TCE is expressed as a per ship per day rate and is calculated as voyage and time charter revenues less voyage expenses during a period divided by the number of operating days during the period.
Time charter: A charter in which the charterer pays for the use of a ship’s cargo capacity for a specified period of time. The owner provides the ship with crew, stores and provisions, ready in all aspects to load cargo and proceed on a voyage as directed by the charterer. The charterer usually pays for bunkering and all voyage-related expenses, including canal tolls and port charges.
Voyage Expenses: Expenses directly attributable to the vessel voyage, which primarily consist of commissions, port and canal dues and bunker expenses.
Worldscale: Worldwide Tanker Nominal Freight Scale. Worldscale Association, a shipping industry group, publishes a lengthy schedule of rates for popular tanker voyages. The printed figures, called Worldscale 100′s, reflect the application of tanker operating cost assumptions to various ports and the distance/steaming time for each route. These “flat rates” appear in US dollars per ton of cargo. Ship owners and spot charterers usually negotiate the hire price of a tanker as a percentage of Worldscale 100 for the voyage involved.

9 responses

  1. Ping-balik: Menu Untuk Forwarding « I Gede Pasek Suarjana

  2. I actually was basically browsing for creative concepts
    for my very own website and stumbled upon your own blog post, “Incoterm Dan
    Istilah yg Sering di pakai I Gede Pasek Suarjana”, will you mind in cases where I actually make use of a bit of of your concepts?

    I am grateful ,Cara

    Februari 21, 2013 pukul 2:03 pm

  3. cahyo widiantoro

    YTH.

    Mohon penjelasannya mengenai OBQ dan ROB. Dan apakah perbedaannya

    Salam

    Cahyo W

    Februari 27, 2013 pukul 12:24 pm

    • bapak cahyo,
      mohon maaf OBQ dan ROB dalam hal apa..??

      thanks

      Maret 18, 2013 pukul 7:34 am

    • Bapak cahyo W.

      Dalam Pengalaman saya di pelayaran

      On board quantity (OBQ) jumlah muatan yg sudah termuat
      On Board Ratio/Revenue (OBR) Jumlah Muatan yg sudah termuat/ yg di muat berdasarkan jumlah terbesar, kubikasi atau tonasenya

      kurang lebih begitu
      berdasarkan pengelaman saya saja.
      terimakasih

      Maret 18, 2013 pukul 7:44 am

  4. Hello! I simply wish to give you a huge thumbs up for the great
    info you have here on this post. I’ll be coming back to your blog for more soon.

    April 23, 2013 pukul 10:16 am

  5. You need to be a part of a contest for one of the highest quality blogs on the
    net. I’m going to recommend this blog!streetdirectory

    Juli 6, 2013 pukul 3:55 am

  6. Arief Yanuar

    Dear Pak Gede, mohon info..
    Saya hendak beli barang impor dengan penawaran incoterm CPT Singapore Airport, tetapi destination kami adalah forwarder kami (door to door) beralamat di Changi Airport, apakah ada tambahan biaya lagi untuk customs dan sebagainya ?
    please advise

    Juli 9, 2013 pukul 7:30 am

  7. Unquestionably believe that which you stated. Your favorite
    reason appeared to be on the internet the simplest thing to be aware of.

    I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people consider worries that they just don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

    Juli 24, 2013 pukul 8:19 pm

Berikan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s

Ikuti

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.